WARSAW — Karol Modzelewski, a historian who became a driving force in Solidarity, the labor movement that helped topple the Communist regime in Poland, and its first spokesman, died on April 28 in Warsaw. He was 81.
His death was reported by the Polish Press Agency, which did not give a cause. Mr. Modzelewski had suffered two strokes in recent years.
Mr. Modzelewski, whose moral obstinacy inspired and guided generations of dissidents both in his home country and abroad, is credited with coining the name Solidarity.
His opposition to the regime dated to the 1950s, and he was frequently arrested and imprisoned. He is believed to have spent more time behind bars than any other dissident in Communist Poland — a total of eight and a half years.
Mr. Modzelewski, a scholar of medieval history by trade, was known as an independent thinker whose nonconformity often set him on a collision course not only with his political enemies, but also with allies and friends.
In 1981, he stepped down as Solidarity’s spokesman to protest a decision by the movement’s leadership to end a strike.
In 1989, he refused to join the round-table talks that laid the groundwork for the end of Communist rule in Poland because of what he viewed as an undemocratic selection of Solidarity’s negotiators.
As a senator from 1989 to 1991, he was one of the very few lawmakers in Parliament to openly criticize the neoliberal transition from socialism to capitalism. That road of “shock therapy,” as it was called, at a time when neoliberalism had reached its peak in global popularity, was the only solution that was discussed by members of the new Polish government.
“To speak against its reforms was to speak against it, and it was unthinkable,” Ryszard Bugaj, an economist and former leader of Labor Union, a social-democratic group that was active mostly in the 1990s, said in an interview. “In the eyes of many, it was almost tantamount to siding with Communists. But Karol didn’t care.”
Mr. Modzelewski argued that Poland’s switch to democracy and a market economy was too swift and radical, as it shut down entire state industries and left millions of people without a source of income practically overnight.
Never comfortable in the role of a politician as Poland made the transition to democracy, Mr. Modzelewski eventually returned to academics.
“I’ve had two souls,” he said in a 2017 interview with the newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza. “I wanted to be a humanist scholar, a historian. But when a need to pound on someone arose, one did what one had to do. I apologize for the boxing term. The need to pound on someone always came from necessity. Whereas working as a historian has been my internal need.”
Mr. Modzelewski was born Kiryl Budniewicz in Moscow on Nov. 23, 1937, at the height of Stalin’s purges, which came to be known as the Great Terror and left more than a million people dead.
His mother, Natalia Wilder, was a translator and literary critic; his father, Aleksander Budniewicz, in the spelling used by Mr. Modzelewski, was a Russian officer whom he never knew.
His family moved to Poland after World War II, and he took the name of his adoptive father, Zygmunt Modzelewski, who was Poland’s minister of foreign affairs from 1947 to 1951.
Mr. Modzelewski graduated with a degree in history from the University of Warsaw in 1959. He was an assistant professor there, with interruptions for prison, until 1971. Forced by the authorities later to leave Warsaw, he moved to Wroclaw, where he continued his research at the University of Wroclaw until 1980, when he joined Solidarity.
He is survived by his wife, Malgorzata Goetz, and his daughter, Ewa.
Mr. Modzelewski’s fighting spirit was evident from an early age. In 1956, when he was 18, Polish workers rose up against poor economic conditions, prompting the Soviets to threaten invasion to squash the resistance. When Soviet forces were on their way to Warsaw, Mr. Modzelewski joined laborers in a car factory in filling bottles with gasoline to be thrown at advancing tanks.
It never came to that, however; Moscow eventually pulled back.
Mr. Modzelewski came to the attention of the authorities in 1964 after writing, with a fellow dissident, Jacek Kuron, “An Open Letter to Members of the Polish United Workers Party.” It was a scathing indictment of the Communist Party and its elitist practices, which the men called a betrayal of the ideals of Communism.
They called for a revolution to bring about a true workers’ democracy.
Mr. Modzelewski and Mr. Kuron were both expelled from the party and sentenced to three and a half years in prison.
Soon after leaving jail, Mr. Modzelewski helped ignite student protests at the University of Warsaw in March 1968, when he called for an end to censorship. He was sent back to prison.
The open letter and student protests led to a democratic opposition movement that coalesced in 1980 around Solidarity, the first independent trade union in Communist Poland.
In the end, Mr. Modzelewski felt the government of 1989 had betrayed the ideals on which it was founded, Irena Lasota, a friend and co-founder of the Institute for Democracy in Eastern Europe, based in Washington, said in a telephone interview.
“The process of mass pauperization led to the breakdown of solidarity, with a lowercase ‘s,’ that was the foundation of Solidarity, with a capital ‘s,’ ” Ms. Lasota said. “The idea of solidarity and social justice was the base of Karol’s principles. And his principles were more important to him than everyday politics.”
Mr. Modzelewski used to say that he may have spent eight and a half years in prison, but not “a month or even a week” of it had been for the sake of capitalism.
“It’s not worth it,” he said.
He stepped down as an active politician and returned to teaching in 1991. He served as a deputy president of the Polish Academy of Sciences from 2007 to 2010.
Among his books was the critically acclaimed “Barbarian Europe” (2004), a comparative study of the preliterate Slavic and Germanic peoples in the Middle Ages.
Mr. Modzelewski continued to warn against increasing social inequalities and injustices that, he said, harmed all of society, not just its poorest members.
After the populist and right-wing Law and Justice Party came to power in 2014 on promises of generous social policies and a message of national pride and historical justice, he dreamed of a new social movement, he said, that would galvanize the people to stand up to the government, which he viewed as a threat to democracy and the rule of law in Poland.
But he felt his time as a leader of such movements was over. Revolution is a privilege of the young, he wrote in his autobiography, “We Will Ride the Mare of History: Confessions of a Battered Rider” (2013).
“In my experience, revolution is either impossible or too costly; in any case, it never ends as we planned it,” he wrote. “A revolutionary cannot know that. It is this ignorance that gives him wings and allows him to demand impossible things. That is how the world changes.”
鬼谷子马会资料大全【乔】【祁】【一】【脸】【苦】【涩】，【他】【说】【道】：“【你】【觉】【得】【以】【刚】【才】【咱】【闺】【女】【的】【脸】【色】，【她】【能】【理】【我】【吗】？” 【刘】【玲】【瞪】【了】【乔】【祁】【一】【眼】，【她】【用】【手】【肘】【用】【力】【怼】【了】【怼】【乔】【祁】，【没】【好】【气】【地】【对】【乔】【祁】【说】【道】：“【你】【先】【去】【试】【试】【啊】，【她】【不】【理】【你】【再】【说】！” 【乔】【祁】【无】【奈】，【便】【只】【得】【缓】【缓】【起】【身】，【他】【微】【微】【低】【头】【看】【向】【坐】【在】【沙】【发】【上】【的】【刘】【玲】。 【刘】【玲】【看】【着】【乔】【祁】【的】【眼】【里】【带】【着】【鼓】【励】，【然】【后】【她】【用】【手】【把】【乔】【祁】【往】
【父】【亲】【利】【用】【她】【巩】【固】【手】【中】【的】【权】【利】，【甚】【至】【对】【母】【亲】【的】【死】【不】【甚】【在】【意】，【而】【今】【却】【来】【说】【爱】【她】，【呵】，【爱】【她】？ 【不】【知】【道】【该】【说】【因】【祸】【得】【福】【还】【是】【其】【他】，【洛】【言】【在】【那】【个】【梦】【中】【幻】【境】【里】【看】【见】【了】【那】【个】【背】【影】【以】【后】，【总】【觉】【得】【自】【己】【的】【身】【世】【好】【像】【也】【有】【问】【题】。 【但】【问】【题】【到】【底】【出】【在】【哪】【儿】，【洛】【言】【说】【不】【上】【来】，【也】【说】【不】【清】【楚】。 “【洛】【言】？！” 【听】【见】【有】【人】【着】【急】【的】【呼】【唤】【着】【她】【的】【名】
【我】【发】【信】【息】【告】【诉】**【我】【决】【定】【去】【省】【城】，【他】【非】【常】【开】【心】。【他】【说】【会】【在】【我】【过】【去】【之】【前】【安】【排】【好】【生】【活】【上】【的】【一】【切】，【盼】【我】【早】【日】【过】【去】。 【爸】【爸】【知】【道】【我】【要】【去】【省】【城】【了】，【除】【了】【对】【我】【事】【无】【巨】【细】【的】【叮】【嘱】【以】【外】，【就】【是】【叫】【我】【好】【好】【休】【息】。 【爸】【爸】【说】：“【你】【马】【上】【就】【要】【去】【省】【城】【了】，【在】【家】【里】【这】【几】【天】【哪】【里】【都】【不】【要】【去】，【就】【安】【安】【心】【心】【的】【休】【息】，【去】【了】【省】【城】【就】【什】【么】【都】【要】【靠】【自】【己】【了】，【爸】
【客】【栈】【中】，【一】【位】【叫】【孟】【行】【海】【的】【侠】【客】【被】【屋】【外】【轻】【响】【吵】【醒】，【只】【听】【脚】【步】【踏】【地】，【甚】【是】【轻】【盈】。 【来】【者】【就】【是】【冲】【着】【孟】【行】【海】【的】。 【孟】【行】【海】【心】【中】【一】【凛】，【摸】【上】【床】【边】【剑】【柄】。【只】【因】【世】【道】【不】【平】，【强】【兵】【横】【行】，【恶】【盗】【流】【窜】，【他】【出】【门】【在】【外】，【即】【使】【在】【夜】【间】【也】【睡】【不】【安】【稳】。 【毕】【竟】【他】【要】【去】【梦】【海】，【找】【此】【生】【最】【爱】【的】【女】【人】，【这】【旅】【途】【前】【易】【后】【难】，【而】【孟】【行】【海】【只】【是】【个】【凡】【人】，【并】【非】【觉】
【又】【是】【一】【个】【早】【上】。 【不】【想】【起】…… 【被】【提】【拉】【传】【染】【了】。 【夏】【尔】【里】【克】【摸】【索】【着】，【找】【到】【了】【计】【时】【器】，【银】【白】【色】【的】【几】【行】【数】【字】【和】【参】【数】【表】【示】【现】【在】【仅】【仅】【是】【半】【夜】【四】【点】【钟】。 【所】【以】【为】【什】【么】【我】【会】【醒】【来】【呢】？ 【夏】【尔】【里】【克】【刚】【准】【备】【起】【来】【探】【查】【一】【下】，【结】【果】【就】【发】【现】【自】【己】【的】【一】【只】【手】【被】【西】【提】【尔】【拉】【住】【了】，【可】【以】【说】【是】【以】【环】【箍】【的】【方】【式】【直】【接】【铐】【上】【了】。 【不】【能】【起】【啊】…… 鬼谷子马会资料大全【陈】【末】【进】【来】【的】【时】【候】【大】【厅】【已】【经】【打】【扫】【好】【了】。 【莉】【丽】【斯】【离】【开】【的】【时】【候】【顺】【带】【把】【安】【德】【烈】【的】【尸】【首】【带】【走】【了】。【这】【种】【充】【满】【光】【明】【能】【量】【的】【尸】【体】【无】【法】【转】【化】【为】【亡】【灵】，【但】【血】【源】【池】【胃】【口】【很】【好】，【来】【者】【不】【拒】。 【一】【个】【安】【德】【烈】，【勉】【强】【能】【转】【化】【出】【公】【爵】【级】【的】【原】【血】，【自】【然】【不】【能】【浪】【费】。 “【嘶】……” 【看】【到】【陈】【末】，【商】【戢】【立】【即】【倒】【吸】【一】【口】【凉】【气】，【实】【在】【是】【他】【脸】【上】【那】【几】【道】【大】【红】【手】
“【终】【于】【出】【来】【了】！” 【一】【道】【黑】【色】【涡】【旋】【突】【然】【在】【一】【片】【荒】【野】【半】【空】【凝】【聚】【成】【型】，【一】【男】【一】【女】【两】【道】【身】【影】【从】【中】【踏】【步】【而】【出】。 【看】【着】【眼】【前】【一】【片】【遍】【地】【杂】【草】【的】【荒】【野】，【呼】【啸】【的】【狂】【风】【卷】【起】【黄】【浊】【的】【沙】【尘】【遮】【蔽】【了】【天】【日】，【身】【穿】【黑】【色】【风】【衣】【的】【年】【轻】【男】【子】【却】【忍】【不】【住】【扯】【起】【了】【唇】【角】，【抬】【头】【眺】【望】【着】【远】【方】【的】【天】【际】。 “【不】【出】【意】【外】【的】【话】，【我】【们】【现】【在】【所】【在】【的】【位】【置】【应】【该】【是】【在】124
【镇】【南】【军】【这】【边】【既】【然】【已】【经】【喊】【出】【了】【世】【子】【威】【武】【的】【口】【号】，【李】【斌】【就】【不】【准】【备】【让】【自】【己】【的】【长】【子】**【再】【继】【续】【参】【与】【斗】【将】。 【草】【原】【联】【军】【得】【知】【上】【场】【斗】【将】【的】【是】【镇】【南】【军】【的】【世】【子】【以】【后】，【万】【一】【弄】【出】【什】【么】【诡】【计】【可】【就】【糟】【糕】【了】。 【草】【原】【联】【军】【那】【边】，【胡】【戎】【族】【可】【汗】【席】【日】【力】【格】【的】【脸】【色】，【已】【经】【变】【的】【十】【分】【难】【看】。 【浩】【吉】【格】【和】【满】【塔】【善】，【都】【是】【胡】【戎】【族】【数】【一】【数】【二】【的】【高】【手】，【且】【又】【都】【是】
【青】【衣】【道】【袍】，【乘】【风】【御】【剑】【而】【来】，【落】【于】【一】【众】【少】【年】【之】【前】。 “【参】【见】【威】【武】【长】【老】！” 【此】【刻】，【众】【多】【已】【被】【确】【认】【为】【有】【修】【仙】【资】【质】【的】【少】【年】，【纷】【纷】【用】【着】【炽】【热】【的】【目】【光】【望】【向】【那】【位】【青】【袍】【威】【武】【长】【老】，【乘】【风】【御】【剑】，【出】【没】【于】【云】【霄】【九】【天】，【这】【是】【何】【等】【潇】【洒】【之】【事】？ 【虽】【然】【在】【这】【些】【日】【子】【里】，【少】【年】【们】【早】【已】【见】【惯】【了】【此】【事】，【但】【此】【时】【此】【刻】【在】【这】【一】【神】【圣】【的】【节】【点】，【得】【传】【修】【仙】【之】【法】